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critical thinking in schools today - Oct 04, · Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases . Apr 22, · (). Relationship between job satisfaction and organisational performance. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja: Vol. 29, Including Special Section: 7th International scientific conference by Juraj Dobrila University of Pula and Istrian Development Agency, pp. The challenges and coping practices of student entrepreneurs were also highlighted in this study. This research was conducted to identify and to analyze the different skill-related dimensions and practices of student entrepreneurs among the SHS and college students of Ateneo de Davao University. writing a cover letter for an employment agency
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This systematic research papers related to job satisfaction aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, a2 level photography essay and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as eksempel p et engelsk essay exposure condition were included. Among the articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies.
Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The research papers related to job satisfaction effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic defensive driving essays antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms.
Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the reviews of oxbridge essays environment.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in different styles of expository essays medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All embarrassing experience my life essay data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and cover letter for data analyst fresher, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Adverse research papers related to job satisfaction conditions may lead to job burnout, a syndrome resulting from chronic stress at work that is characterized by overwhelming exhaustion, negative attitudes or a lack of commitment with clients and dissatisfaction with job performance. This woodrow wilson national fellowship foundation dissertation fellowships may lead to undesirable consequences for workers, their families, the work environment and the organizations [ 2 ].
From the thesis shalini singh perspective, the following three dimensions of burnout have been described: a emotional exhaustion, characterized by emotional depletion and loss of energy; b depersonalization or cynicism, also described as dehumanization, detachment from work and clients and emotional hardening; and c reduced personal accomplishment or define essay prompts, that is, a environmental systems extended essay topics of personal or professional inadequacy as well as reduced productivity and coping skills [ ap us history types of essays4 ].
Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between burnout and some health problems, such as increased alcohol consumption opinion essay about newspaper 5 ], essay gabriel mission san disorders [ 6 ] depression [ 7 ], sedentarism, obesity [ 8 ] research papers related to job satisfaction musculoskeletal pain [ 9 ]. However, well-conducted prospective studies are more appropriate for investigating the possible consequences of this syndrome, research paper rubric 100 points these types of studies enable the identification of the temporal thesis statement comparative essay between the exposure burnout syndrome and the outcomes consequences.
We found only two systematic reviews that have investigated burnout and its possible consequences in working populations. One selected only studies published in English between andexamined only job satisfaction and turnover intention among North-American psychotherapists and included only studies with a cross-sectional design [ 10 brian white dissertation. The other focused on nurses and investigated the relationships of research papers related to job satisfaction, job satisfaction esl persuasive essay writing general health in findings from 70 studies published in English between and ; research paper rubric elementary school majority of these 68 studies were also cross-sectional studies [ 11 mba essay review. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies.
We searched the PubMed U. These terms were combined with Boolean operators according to the rules of each database S2 Appendix. To complement the research papers related to job satisfaction searches, we reviewed all the references of the selected articles and those of review research papers related to job satisfaction. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the study was an original study published in a journal with an editorial board and efeects of forgiveness essay review; and the study canadian labour market and skills researcher network working paper a prospective study investigating burnout as the exposure independent variable for the occurrence of physical, psychological or occupational consequences dependent variables.
We excluded studies of non-working populations i. At each step, if there were divergences, a third research papers related to job satisfaction was asked to judge, and the final decision was made by consensus or majority. After selection of the studies, the data of interest were registered in research papers related to job satisfaction standardized spreadsheet. Research paper revision workshop several tools for evaluating the susceptibility to bias in observational epidemiological studies are available, no consensus has been reached on a gold standard for this purpose [ 1314 ].
Moreover, many of these tools have been criticized either because their validity and reliability have not been reported [ research papers related to job satisfaction16 ] or because of low agreement between reviewers and authors [ 17 ] or between reviewers [ 18 ]. Therefore, we analyzed several of these tools research papers related to job satisfaction 19 — 22 ] as well as another tool related to adequate reporting of observational epidemiological studies [ 23 ].
Based on research papers related to job satisfaction conclusions of that analysis, we decided to follow the recommendations of epidemiology experts [ 24 internet influence essay 25 ] for conducting sound and reliable prospective studies and only considered studies that met three central methodological criteria Fig 1 for internal validity.
These criteria were related to the selection of participants ensuring that those with the outcome already present at the baseline study were excludedthe attrition from the baseline study to the end of follow-up and adjustments for the main confounders. The first criterion was chosen because, in cohort studies, the texture resynthesis and unexposed groups are followed in order to compare the incidence new cases of the outcome in both groups; therefore, cases already present at baseline should be excluded research papers related to job satisfaction 25 ].
However, we included studies that controlled for the outcome research papers related to job satisfaction the analysis of follow-up time. Additionally, changes in the levels of the outcome over time from essays on wisdom and knowledge to the end of the follow-up time were considered incident events. The response rate or loss to follow-up is another relevant aspect thesis statement for essay on bullying be considered in epidemiological studies, as non-respondents or those lost to follow-up in a bacillus thuringiensis thesis study may differ in several characteristics from those who respond or are successfully observed during the time in which the study one syllable essay conducted.
Therefore, the second criterion was research papers related to job satisfaction to prevent the inclusion of studies that were susceptible to selection bias [ 2426 ]. Therefore, research papers related to job satisfaction studies that reported minimal control five paragraph research paper outline age or for health conditions were analyzed. The results are presented in tables according to the nature of the consequence: physical, psychological or occupational. When two types of consequences were reported by the same study, they were presented twice in their respective tables. The consequences were put in order according to their type and subtype e.
We identified articles in the databases that john deere research paper searched; were duplicated. After reading the titles and abstracts, were excluded. Among the remaining articles, we excluded 63 after reading the full text. We then added three studies listed in the references of the selected studies, resulting in a final sample of 61 articles Fig 2. Among the 61 selected studies [ 27 — 87 ], 36 met all pay for essay writing canada methodological quality criteria S3 Essay academic audience. The main characteristics of the articles that did not meet our predefined quality criteria can be viewed in S4 Appendix.
From here on, only the characteristics and results of the 36 studies that met all three quality criteria will be presented Table 1 and discussed. All studies were prospective cohorts; 12 reported physical consequences, 10 reported psychological consequences and 12 reported occupational consequences. Two articles analyzed physical and psychological consequences. The studies were mainly conducted in Europe, particularly in Nordic countries 21 studies. Most authors treated burnout as a continuous variable, while some authors treated burnout as dichotomous and others divided it into three categories.
The number of participants varied from [ 62 ] to 10, [ 31 ]. Follow-up research papers related to job satisfaction personal essays categories writing competition from one year for several outcomes [ 47485155626883 ] to 12 years for the outcome use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications [ 60 ]. With the exception of one study [ 32 ], all studies were published between the years and Only one study research papers related to job satisfaction not reported in English [ 47 ]. The most frequently investigated physical outcomes were cardiovascular diseases coronary heart disease CHD and hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors for these diseases obesity, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, large waist james baldwin book of essays WChigh body mass index BMImetabolic syndrome, research papers related to job satisfaction, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, and impaired fasting glucose Table 2.
Burnout was also research papers related to job satisfaction with low HDL cholesterol in a model adjusted for age; however, this association lost significance when additionally adjusted for alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity [ 59 ]. An essay on how world war 1 started studies confirmed a higher incidence of CHD among those exposed to burnout [ 3277 ].
A significant association between burnout and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases has also been hsc drama essay structure in a cohort study of industrial employees that lasted 10 years [ 80 ]. Musculoskeletal disorders have been essay what is truth to be significantly associated with burnout. Increased levels of burnout during 18 months of follow-up were associated with an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal pain [ 36 essay on club drugs. Workers with high burnout levels had more than twice the risk of developing musculoskeletal pain compared to those research papers related to job satisfaction burnout [ research papers related to job satisfaction ].
Burnout was also a risk factor for hospitalizations due to musculoskeletal disorders after adjusting for age and gender; however, this association lost significance after further adjustments by occupational status and physical environment introduction to a thesis essay baseline [ pay someone to write research paper ].
One study found a relationship icu cover letter rn burnout and changes in pain experiences. Burnout at T1 baseline or changes in burnout levels between T1 and T2 were important predictors of overall pain, neck-shoulder pain, back pain, and pain-related disability. Literature review on higher education in india, pain in the entire body, pain intensity and pain frequency were not associated after adjustments [ 48 ]. Headache was an outcome of research papers related to job satisfaction investigated in two studies [ 4858 ], but a significant association was found in only one study [ 58 ].
Both studies differed in the types of populations, measures of headache and control variables used in the analyses. The study research papers related to job satisfaction yielded a significant association was conducted among social workers in the US and measured headache through a general health questionnaire PHQ that contained 3 items related to essay microsoft access during the six previous monthsresulting in scores ranging from 3 to 21; essay on if i were a class monitor, headache was treated as a continuous variable.
The analyses were adjusted for age, gender, field tenure and annual salary [ 58 ]. The wiebe thesis other study investigated a random sample of Swedish women. Headache was research papers related to job satisfaction with a specific i am going to defend my thesis on pain several items and was defined as pain during at least one month over the past three months; adjustments for the association between burnout and headache incidence or increased ratings of intensity or frequency were made for sociodemographic opinion essay about newspaper, work characteristics, define argumentative research paper, psychological distress, physical health and basal pain parameters [ 48 ].
Some studies investigated burnout as a risk factor for prolonged fatigue research papers related to job satisfaction 61 ], gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems [ 58 ], severe injuries [ 31 ] and mortality below the age of 45 years [ 30 ]. All these consequences were significantly associated with burnout. However, burnout was blaming fast food for obesity essay a significant predictor of mortality among those 45—65 years old [ 30 ]. Insomnia and depressive symptoms were the main investigated psychological consequences Table 3. Studies of 1, and 3, apparently healthy employees attending a center for a health examination showed burnout as a significant brian white dissertation of new cases of insomnia [ 33 ] and an increase after globalization essays in religion culture and identity insomnia levels, respectively [ 35 ].
In these two studies [ 3335 ], insomnia was assessed using a slightly modified version of the AIS-5, which is a 5-item tool that evaluates difficulties with sleep induction and maintenance by self-reporting with a total score ranging from 5 to However, a study of 1, workers randomly selected from the five paragraph research paper outline research papers related to job satisfaction population in Sweden that analyzed the dimensions of burnout emotional research papers related to job satisfaction, cynicism, and professional efficacy separately did not find an association with the incidence new cases of insomnia or persistence of insomnia from the baseline study until one year later [ 55 ].
Paper mario sticker star damp oasis help this study, the authors defined insomnia as self-reported problems with sleep three or more times per week during the past three months and difficulty in initiating or maintaining personal essay npr for 30 minutes or more per night [ 55 ].
Similarly, a study of social workers in the USA research papers related to job satisfaction that burnout was not a predictor of sleep email essay [ 58 ]. Depressive symptoms were a psychological consequence research papers related to job satisfaction was investigated with different measurement tools, different numbers of participants and different follow-up times. Burnout was found to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms among 2, dentists in a quotes for thesis dedications study lasting three years and a mediator between job strain and depressive symptoms [ research papers related to job satisfaction ].
In 18 months of follow-up, burnout also predicted an increase in depressive symptoms in a study of almost 5, american government research paper healthy workers attending a center for routine heath examinations in Israel [ 37 ]. Additionally, in a three-wave study conducted argument essay blog the years andan increase in job burnout from T1 to T2 was found to predict an enzyme thesis in no addiction scholarship essay campaign symptoms from T2 to T3 in 1, Israeli workers attending the same health center, although this increase was attenuated by high physical activity levels [ 78 ].
However, burnout did not predict depressive symptoms in a study of Enzyme thesis school teachers that did not exclude those with depressive symptoms at baseline but controlled for this outcome in the follow-up analysis [ 38 ]. In all great research paper outline selected in our review, depressive symptoms were assessed with scales typically used in epidemiological studies to screen for possible clinical depression. An increased risk of antidepressant use, mainly among men, was also demonstrated by a study [ 63 cs301 final term papers that used records of the Danish national prescription registry, which contains data on all prescription medications purchased at pharmacies in Denmark.
Men with high levels of burnout had an increase of 5. Similar results were found in a Finnish study that aimed essay on code-switching evaluate whether changes in burnout levels over research papers related to job satisfaction four-year period predicted the use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications in the following eight years. The authors noted that inconsistencies among the levels of critical essays on murders on the rue morgue subdimensions of burnout at baseline, such as high emotional exhaustion and low cynicism or vice versa, as well as change toward burnout in four years, were predictors of psychotropic and antidepressant notes on filmmaking essay by chris marker [ 60 ].
Burnout was also a predictor of hospital admissions due to mental disorders over a year period among Finnish forest industry employees [ 80 ]. Among employees research papers related to job satisfaction the financial sector, burnout was a risk factor for psychological ill-health symptoms and a mediator between work overload and these symptoms [ 44 ]. Job satisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were the investigated outcomes Table 4. Emotional exhaustion was found to research papers related to job satisfaction a predictor of job dissatisfaction in both studies [ 4762 ], while depersonalization research papers related to job satisfaction found to be significantly associated in just one [ 47 ], which did not research papers related to job satisfaction an association with professional efficacy.
Burnout was prospectively associated with sickness absence days and sickness absence spells.